Changes in the surface area of lakes in the dry steppe: A case study in Buuntsagaan Lake

Authors

  • Batnyam Tseveengerel Division of Physical Geography and Environmental Research, Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9634-5243
  • Purevsuren Munkhtur Division of Physical Geography and Environmental Research, Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  • Davaagatan Tuyagerel Division of Physical Geography and Environmental Research, Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5564/mjgg.v60i44.2923

Keywords:

Buuntsagaan Lake, Dry steppe ecosystem, Evaporation, Modification of Normalised, Difference Water Index

Abstract

Lakes in areas with fragile and dry steppe ecosystems are of great ecological and climatic importance, and  Buuntsagaan Lake is one of them in Mongolia. It is the largest lake of the Valley of the Lakes situated in the Khangai and the Gobi-Altai Mountain Range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in the surface area of Buuntsagaan Lake between 1986 and 2022 and determine factors affecting it. We used Landsat satellite imageries to calculate the Modification of Normalised Difference Water Index for estimating the surface area of the Buuntsagaan Lake and assessed the dynamic changes in evaporation using Meyer's formula. Also, we performed field measurements at 74 points along the shore of Buuntsagaan Lake during the summer of 2022. The Kappa coefficient was used to examine the accuracy of the surface area. According to the results, it is observed that the surface area of Buuntsagaan Lake was the greatest in 1994 and 2000. However, the overall surface area decreased by 7.9% over the last 36 years, and the fluctuation in changes in the average annual surface area was around 0.34%. In addition, it is also indicated that the changes in the surface area of the lake were mainly affected by air temperature, the maximum speed of the wind, and the discharge of the Baidrag River. In conclusion, the tendency to decrease the surface area is expected to continue.

Хуурай хээрийн бүс дэх нуурын талбайн өөрчлөлт: Бөөнцагаан нуурын жишээн дээр

ХУРААНГУЙ: Хуурай хээрийн эмзэг экосистемтэй газар нутагт орших нуур нь экологи, уур амьсгалын хувьд чухал ач холбогдолтой бөгөөд Монгол орны нутагт орших Бөөнцагаан нуур нь тэдгээр нууруудын нэг юм. Бөөнцагаан нуур нь Хангайн нуруу болон Говь-Алтайн нурууны хоорондох Нууруудын хөндийд орших хамгийн том нуур юм. Энэхүү судалгааны зорилго нь Бөөнцагаан нуурын талбайн өөрчлөлтийг 1986-2022 он хүртэл тооцож, талбайн өөрчлөлтөд нөлөөлж буй хүчин зүйлсийг үнэлэх юм. Бөөнцагаан нуурын усан гадаргын талбайн өөрчлөлтийг Ландсат хиймэл дагуулын цуврал мэдээг ашиглан “Засварт нормчлогдсон ялгаврын усны өөрчлөлтийн индекс”-ийн тусламжтайгаар тооцоолж, нуурын ууршилтын олон жилийн динамикийг Мейерийн нуураас уурших ууршилтын томьёог ашиглан илрүүлсэн. Түүнчлэн хээрийн судалгааг 2022 оны зуны улиралд явуулж, нуурын эргийн хэмжилтийг 74 цэг дээр хийсэн. Нуурын усан гадаргын талбайн өөрчлөлтийн үнэмшлийг каппа коэффициентоор шалгасан. Тус судалгааны үр дүнд Бөөнцагаан нуурын талбай 1994-2000 онуудад хамгийн том усан гадаргатай байсан нь ажиглагдсан боловч сүүлийн 36 жилийн хугацаанд нуурын талбай 7.9%-иар багасаж, нуурын дундаж талбайн жилийн өөрчлөлтийн хэлбэлзэл 0.34% байсан. Түүнчлэн агаарын температур, салхины хамгийн их хурд болон Байдраг голын урсац нь тус нуурын талбайн өөрчлөлтөд нөлөөлж буй голлох хүчин зүйлүүд бөгөөд цаашид ч тус нуурын гадаргын талбайн хэмжээ буурах хандлагатай байна.

Түлхүүр үгс: Бөөнцагаан нуур, хуурай хээрийн бүс, ууршилт, MNDWI

Abstract
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Published

2023-12-28

How to Cite

Tseveengerel, B., Munkhtur, P., & Tuyagerel, D. (2023). Changes in the surface area of lakes in the dry steppe: A case study in Buuntsagaan Lake. Mongolian Journal of Geography and Geoecology, 60(44), 46–57. https://doi.org/10.5564/mjgg.v60i44.2923

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