Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences <p>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> en-US <p>Copyright on any research article in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences are Open Access articles published under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY.</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> (Avid. Budeebazar, Sc.D) (Gantulga Lkhagva) Sun, 19 May 2019 07:01:20 +0000 OJS 60 Studies of kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of cashmere dyeing with bio-preparation of Urtica Cannabina L, <p>In this study, dyeing Mongolian cashmere with bio-preparation extracted from <em>Urtica cannabina L</em>. was investigated. Dyeing experiments were carried out under varying pH, temperature and contact time. The results have been used to investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dyeing cashmere. This process is pH dependent and it has been found that the most suitable condition is pH 4.5. Increase in adsorption capacity with increase in temperature indicates that the dyeing process is endothermic. Thermodynamic parameters like standard affinity (∆µ), standard enthalpy (∆H) and standard entropy (∆S) were evaluated.</p> Tserendulam S, Ganchimeg Yu, Nadmid G, Soyol-Undrakh Kh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Icing phenomena for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and it’s feflow simulation result <p>Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, shows a highly dynamic urban and industrial development, with a strong increase of population. Thus, water demand is continuously rising while water availability is in general low and less reliable. <br>The semi-arid and cold environment shows a high variability in precipitation and river discharge, with a general tendency towards decreasing water availability due to increasing air temperatures and thus rising potential evaporation. <br>In parallel with the city’s development, the extended groundwater aquifer shows a clear decline, and the groundwater levels drop significantly. Therefore, a groundwater management system based on managed aquifer recharge is proposed and a strategy to implement these measures in the Tuul valley is presented. <br>In this study considered enhancement of natural recharge rates during the early winter cold period, an increase of groundwater recharge through creating ice storages, due to keep water source as in ice form on surface. In dry season March to May ice storage recharge surface and groundwater by melting where Tuul River is non-flow condition. In this paper also written <strong>matlab</strong> icing code in water supply wells location, limited and unlimited area. <br>The study of icing was processed in <strong>feflow</strong> simulation scenarios for artificially recharging groundwater resources.<br>In this study considered <strong>feflow</strong> simulation scenarios for artificially recharging groundwater resources like enhancement of natural recharge rates during the early winter cold period, an increase of groundwater recharge through creating ice storages, due to keep water source as in ice form on surface, drainage canal recharging aquifer from opposite side, constructing underground dam that accumulates groundwater behind. <br>The result shown that one of the possibilities recharge groundwater in dry season is icing method which creates ice sheets over ice and build ice storages in winter, keep water in ice form.</p> Nasanbayar N ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of cerium from Khuren khad ore <p>This study presents the recovery of cerium (Ce) from Khuren Khad ore by using the hydrometallurgical process. Several methods of leaching and precipitation were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ce from the ore. According to the result, it is 4.8% of Ce contained in this ore sample. <br>The best result of this study reveals that 100% Ce leaching efficiency can be obtained under leaching conditions of 6N HCl at a temperature of 70° C and 5g/50mL solid/liquid ratio and 3h. Further, 99.60% precipitation recovery of Ce was achieved with NaHCO<sub>3</sub> at an interval of 24 hours. After leaching and precipitation, the concentration of Ce was enriched from 4.8% of Khuren Khad ore to 33.09% of precipitation product.</p> Sandagdorj N, Enerel B, Ching-Hwa Lee, Gankhuyag E, Terbish N ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Microstructure and phase transformation of Ni-Ti-Fe-Nd quaternary shape memory alloy <p>The effect of rare earth element neodymium (Nd) addition on the microstructure and phase transformation behavior of Ni<sub>50</sub>Ti<sub>47</sub>Fe<sub>2</sub>Nd<sub>1</sub> shape memory alloy was investigated by scanning electronic microscope, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that the microstructure of Ni-Ti-Fe-Nd quaternary alloy consists of NiNd<sub>3</sub> phase, NiTi<sub>2</sub> and the NiTi matrix. A one-step martensitic transformation is observed in the alloys. The martensitic transformation start temperature Ms 54.11<sup>0</sup>C.</p> Dovchinvanchig Maashaa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Bayankhongor aimag of Mongolia <p>Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity is due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates, which has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events.The GSHAP project, aiming at hazard assessment on a global scale, indicates that the territory of Bayankhongor aimag, Mongolia, in Central Asia is characterized by maximum bedrock peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as medium as in range of 80 to 160cm/s<sup>2</sup>. In this study, which has been carried out within the framework of the project “Seismic microzoning map of center of 12 aimags, Mongolia”, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the Mongolia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth &lt;50 km) seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects) earthquake catalogue for the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the Open Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (ODPSHA), which is based on the Cornell methodology. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches 93-98 cm/s<sup>2</sup> , which in intensity corresponds to VII in MSK64 scale in the centre of Bayankhongor aimag for 475 years mean return period.</p> Ankhtsetseg D, Odonbaatar Ch, Mоngоnsuren D, Bayarsaikhan E, Dembereldulam M ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Three species of heterodermia recorded in Mongolia <p><em>Heterodermia</em> <em>hypoleuca</em> (Ach.) Treis.,H. <em>japonica</em> (M. Sato) Swinscow &amp; Krogand H. <em>subascendens</em> (Asahina) Trass. have been recorded for the first time in Mongolia. Data on substrates, habitats, distribution are listed for every species. Taxonomic comments and distinctive characters are provided for these species. The habitats are briefly described and the frequently associated species are listed. It is interesting to note that as a result of processing hundreds of herbarium collections of lichens, numerous new species were found in Mongolia. This means that there is still a substantial gap in the knowledge, especially about the lichen flora of remote corners of the country, which are numerous.</p> Enkhtuya O, Javkhlan S ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Identifying some factors affecting medical service quality (Case of secondary level hospital) <p>In recent years public concern over health care services has been growing which signals the need for health organisations to improve the quality of their service. The Resolution 13 of the Health Minister issued on 13 January 2014 “On approving guidelines for conducting customer satisfaction surveys” endorsed a questionnaire and a sample form aimed at identifying the quality of medical service and client satisfaction. Every year, state-owned clinics carry out survey among their customers using these documents and accordingly improve on their work and performance. However, customers’ assessment of the quality of services being provided by health organisations has not been able to find any improvement in health services.<br>Since health organisations are service providers, customers’ assessment measures their quality and performance. On the other hand, researchers have identified a number of factors that affect the quality of medical care and customer satisfaction. Therefore, it is significant to optimally identify factors affecting customer satisfaction with regard to health care. Examining the perceptions of and expectations from health care service providers, including practitioners and health organisations, management has been identified as the most important need of the day.<br>Management will make it possible to pinpoint factors that cause poor quality of health care. Most researchers employ the SERVQUAL quality model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988) Parasuraman (1985), and Zeithaml, Berry (1988) and Gronroos’ (2000) indicators of service quality. The current study investigates the impact of factors that affect the quality of health services, and contains additional indicators related to measuring levels of significance of each dimension oriented to individuals that receive health care from the second tier hospitals of 6 districts in UB and health care providers respectively, plus some measurement items related to organisational issues of improving health care quality and health care system issues that have been identified by the customers themselves.</p> Ariunjargal N ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Employee training in small and medium-sized enterprises in Mongolia <p>In many developed and developing countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a significantrole in their development. All researches show that globally, SMEs account for more than 90 percent of all business activities and earlier studies have established that SMEs have a critical role in contributing to a country’s economic growth[2] such as reducing poverty and unemployment,and creating employment opportunities. In addition, they contribute to reducing inequitable income distribution, enhancing competitiveness of enterprises, as well as promoting social stability. Therefore, the development of SMEs represents theprimary goal of every modern economy. There are many factors that influence the development of SMEs andone of the most important among them is the human resource management practice, especially employees’ training. Therefore, the main aim of our study is to examine the level of awareness of the training and development (T&amp;D) policy among owners or managers of SMEs, their attitude and organisational support towards training and to analyse the training-related problems encountered by SMEs within the context of Mongolia.</p> Tuul O, Shao Jian Bing ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000