Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences <p>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> en-US <p>Copyright on any research article in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences are Open Access articles published under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY.</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> (Avid. Budeebazar, Sc.D) (Gantulga Lkhagva) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Geochemical evaluation of land use at a medieval harbor site in Masuda City, Chugoku region, Japan <p>A large-scale Medieval harbor site has been recently discovered at Nakazu-Higashihara in Masuda City, Chugoku region, Japan. The Medieval harbor site is divided into north and south areas. The concentration of 22 elements in soil samples from the north of the harbor site was determined in order to identify the geochemical signatures of the Medieval harbor site. The evidence described in the north area is an example of identification of both natural and anthropogenic processes that lead to geochemical variations within the archaeological soils. The north area of the site contains silt and sandy soils characterized by highest concentration of Zr and relatively low levels of most other elements (except for Sr and TS). Negative or weak positive correlations between TiO<sub>2</sub> and MnO, and CaO and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> in the north area indicate that this association of elements represents an ancient anthropogenic signature, especially related to residential sites in all soil types. Correlation between TiO<sub>2</sub> and Ni, Y, Nb, Zr, Th, and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> did not reflect the anthropogenic history. However, these elements and their ratios can be used to identify sources, as well as to establish baseline concentration of other elements which are influenced by anthropogenic and detrital inputs.</p> Dalai Banzragch, Hiroaki Ishiga, Damdinpurev Nasandulam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Implications of rural settlement patterns for development <p>Under the three law of magnetism [1] the mechanism of pull-push is rapidly increasing [2] in the process of urbanization and as a result the role and function of some settlements have changed. The increase in the population of big cities affects the increase in the radius of influence of the settlement to surrounding area [3, 4]. One of the reasons of rural to urban migration among pastoral herder is growing interest in and attraction to intensive farming systems [4]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify proper population planning of settlements. This research work was carried out in 9 aimags: central and eastern economic regions of Mongolia.<br>The population of small settlements has decreased under the influence of bigger settlements with market and better infrastructure. The roles of these little settlements are now changing to become centers for agricultural production as well as to provide new opportunities to migrant herders. Nevertheless, many of them still lack access to social services and infrastructure. <br>Prior to the 1990s, much attention was given to urban development ensuring their uniformity, and each urban settlement had its own light and heavy industry. However, after the democratic transformations in 1990, agglomeration was carried out in a few settlements to attract population, while some other settlements were overseen. Therefore, it is important to specialize industrial enterprises at settlements, and improve their structure and create a multi-centered system.</p> Davaakhuu Khishigdorj, Punsantsogvoo Tseyenkhand ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Temporal variation of the pseudo total content of heavy metals in Ulaanbaatar soil <p>This work shows some of the results of investigation into pseudo total content of heavy metals in the surface soil of Ulaanbaatar.<br>The main objectives of this study are to (i) evaluate temporal variability of pseudo-total content of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in surface soil of Ulaanbaatar collected from 2003 to 2018, (ii) identify the main discriminates - metals during the years 2003-2018 years and, (iii) investigate the interdependence of main discriminates on the soil reaction (pH) and soil organic matter.<br>Due to urbanization and negative human activities, surface soil in Ulaanbaatar losing their natural features, which are changing, while the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in urban surface soil is becoming irregular. In Ulaanbaatar surface soil, the mean concentration of Cu, Zn and Pb much mois very high and the mean concentration of Co is lower than background soil. In some land use zones, it was found that the mean concentraion of Zn and Cr was considerably higher than the permissible level. The pollution condition of Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni and Cd was the same in 2010-2018 and the pollution conditions of Pb, Cu and Co are different. The main discriminants are Pb, Cu and Co. In Ulaanbaatar soil, a strikingly close correlationhip was established for Cu, Pb with the soil organic matter, and for Cd, Zn, Cr with the pH, respectively.</p> Tsagaan Byambasuren, Byambaa Khuukhenkhuu, Ganbaatar Ochirbat, Darizav Tsedenbaljir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of different grazing intensity on above-ground biomass in Mongolian rangeland <p>In the last two decades, the quality of Mongolian rangeland has degraded primarily owing to overgrazing and climate change. This has government challenged to improve land usage and gather information about the tolerance of the rangeland. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of cutting frequency (four, three, two and one), cutting height (0 and 3 cm) and duration of cutting on above-ground biomass at different degradation levels of Fescue-forbs rangeland. Three sites were selected with different degradation levels; slightly, moderately and heavily degraded. <br>The cutting experiment was randomized with complete block design with five replications. Samplings were carried out in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2009, all the plots of rangelands were cut at the same time in August and at 0 cm height and the results were analyzed. The results showed that total biomass was influenced by cutting frequency, cutting height and the duration of cutting. Biomass decreased considerably with increasing cutting frequency in most cases when cutting height was 0 cm but small changes were noticed when cutting height was 3 cm. The biomass decreased by 30-54% when cut four times a year at 0 cm in slightly- and moderately-degraded sites. Year of duration influenced biomass significantly at slightly- and heavily degraded sites.</p> Lkhagvajav Otgontuya, Asrun Elmarsdottir, Namdag Lkhagvajav, Chimed Munkhbat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Platinum-Containing nanocomposites based on Humic substances from brown coal <p>In the presentreport we look intosynthesized silver and gold-containing nanocomposites based on humic substances. The composition and properties of humic substances isolated from brown coal in Mongolian deposits have beenestablished. The methodology of obtaining platinum-containing nanobiocomposites using a matrix of humic substances is described. Our investigation shows thattheir composition and structure are characterized by a complex of modern physicochemical methods, such as X-ray, energy dispersive spectral microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), X-ray diffraction analysis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).</p> Gania Dolmaa, Galina Petrovna Aleksandrova, Marina Vladimerovna Lesnichaya, Byambajav Nomintsetseg, Anatoly Nikolaevich Sapojhnikov, Boris Genadevich Sukhov, Batnasan Bayaraa, Duger Regdel, Boris Aleksandrovich Trofimov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic analysis of mitochondrial ND5 gene of siberian ibex (Capra Sibirica, Pallas, 1776) population in Mongolia <p>The Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica) from Central Asia is believed to be the most ancient species of the genus Capra. In Mongolia, it is distributed in the areas of Mongolian Altai, Gobi-Altai, Dzungaria, Altai, Khan Khuhii, Khoridal Saridag and Ulaan Taiga as well as in the desert and semi-desert steppe zones of Dundgobi and Dornogobi aimags (provinces). In the current study, we investigated the mitochondrial ND5 gene fragments of the Siberian ibex population from different parts of Mongolia. Nine haplotypes, including 6 shared and 3 unique haplotypes were identified among these populations. Furthermore, Tajima’s statistics and Fu’s statistics did not reveal significant positive value across the population, indicating population decline and balancing selection.<br>In the phylogenetic tree by 9 haplotypes, no separated clusters were generated. In addition, nucleotide diversity was 0.015, haplotype diversity was 0.86 and the average number of differences in nucleotides was 8.2 in the overall population. These results suggest that genetic diversity across all the populations was low, while haplotype diversity and the average number of differences in nucleotides were high.</p> Tsenddorj Bilguun, Baatar Delgerzul, Zunduibaatar Unudbayasgalan, Baranz Galbadrakh, Batsukh Tserendulam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic comparison of Altai and Gobi argali sheep (Ovis ammon) populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers: Implication on conservation <p>Argali sheep is an ungulate, which inhabits the north, west, south and central regions of Mongolia. There are two major populations (Altai and Gobi) in Mongolia, but their taxonomic classification as subspecies is often disputed among researchers. Furthermore, there is no recent study about the population genetic structure of argali sheep in Mongolia. In the present study, we have investigated genetic diversity and difference between Altai and Gobi argali populations using mitochondrial control region hyper variable segment (HVS) sequence (598bp) and 3 microsatellite markers. Mitochondrial HVS haplotype analysis showed high haplotype diversity (0.982±0.012) and low nucleotide diversity (0.02589). In microsatellite analysis, total of 9 alleles were found across all loci while mean Ho were 0.59±0.13 for Altai and 0.53±0.1 for Gobi populations, indicating low allelic diversity with moderate heterozygosity. Neighbor-joining tree separated haplotypes into two clusters, Altai and Gobi population, implying distinct genetic difference between the two subspecies. Additionally, Pairwise F<sub>ST</sub> and Kimura-2 parameter showed 0.127 and 0.0413±0.0068, respectively. These genetic distance analyses hinted genetic difference between Altai and Gobi populations are in subspecies level. In summary, mitochondrial HVS and microsatellite analysis demonstrated that Altai and Gobi populations had low genetic diversity but might be genetically distinct from each other in subspecies level, suggesting conservation should be separately managed.</p> Baatar Delgerzul, Zunduibaatar Unudbayasgalan, Tsenddorj Bilguun, Chuluunbat Battsetseg, Baranz Galbadrahk, Batsukh Tserendulam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A factor analysis of characterization of “Politician” criteria by different generations in Mongolia <p>Based on intergeneration theories, 2721 randomly sampled pollees are classified into 4 generations; namely Gen Z, Gen Y, Gen X and Gen BB. This paper aims to identify the difference between Mongolian generations, especially on subjective criteria to assess politicians. Based on the statistical result of factor analysis, 20 criteria are classified into 5 factors. KMO measurements above .800 and absolute significance value above .30 is used to set the boundaries for criteria grouped in one category and overlapping criteria are examined with ground justifications. Public perception of potential political representatives is researched among each generation, and commonality and discrepancies among generations are explained with quantitative verifications in the following paper. Statistics results reveal that there are common factors between Gen Z and Y, in which they perceive the factors such as the qualification and the public skills in a similar manner. Also, older generations including Gen X and BB have uniform understanding of education and political experience of politicians.</p> Ariunsan Gantuya, Jargalsaikhan Oyunsuren ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000