Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences <p>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> Mongolian Academy of Sciences en-US Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences 2310-4716 <p>Copyright on any research article in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences are Open Access articles published under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY.</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Geospatial modeling approaches for mapping topsoil organic carbon stock in northern part of Mongolia <p>Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important indicators of soil quality and agricultural productivity. This paper presents the application of Regression Kriging (RK), geographically weighted regression (GWR) and Geographically Weighted Regression Kriging (GWRK) for prediction of topsoil organic carbon stock in Tarialan. A total of 25 topsoil (0-30 cm) samples were collected from Tarialan soum of Khuvsgul aimag in Mongolia. In this study, seven independent variables were used including normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), normalised difference moisture index (NDMI), land surface temperature (LST) and terrain factors (DEM, Slope, Aspect). We used root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean error (ME) and determination coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) to evaluate the performance of these methods. Validation results showed that performance of the GWRK, GWR, and RK approaches were good with not only low values of root-mean-square error (1.38 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 1.48 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.69 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), mean error (0.28 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, -0.22 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.17 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) but also high values of R<sup>2</sup> (0.76, 0.72, 0.94). The estimated SOC stock values ranged from 0.28-16.26 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.72–15.24 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.16–15.83 kg/m<sup>2</sup> using GWRK, GWR, RK approaches in the study area. The highest average SOC stock value was in the wetland (6.47 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 6.08 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 6.44 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and the lowest was in cropland (1.63 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 1.48 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 1.80 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) using these approaches. According to the validation, GWRK, GWR, and RK approaches produced satisfactory results for estimating and mapping SOC stock. However, Regression Kriging was the best model, followed by GWRK and GWR to predict topsoil organic carbon stock in Tarialan.</p> Samdandorj M Purevdorj Ts ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 4 17 10.5564/pmas.v59i2.1215 Result of study on developing forest seed region in Mongolia <p>In foreign countries, motor roads and railroads are usually used as borders of forest seed regions. In the case of Mongolia, this method is not suitable in view of the sparse population, large distribution area of forests and the huge territory of the country. Therefore, this study used topographical features to determine the borders of the seed regions. Satellite images in combination with Digital Elevation Model (DEM) make it possible to define rivers, streams and mountain ridges as the borders of forest seed regions. Overall, we identified 19 seed regions for Siberian larch and 12 regions for Scots pine, 9 regions for Siberian pine, 6 regions for Siberian fir and 9 seed regions for Siberian spruce forests. Due to a lack of genetic-selection studies in Mongolia, these proposed forest seed regions can be considered as a preliminary effort with an opportunity to be updated and improved based on more detailed research results. The forest seed regions and maps will play important role as fundamental material for establishing a permanent forest seed supply based on genetic-selection characteristics of the forests in different regions in Mongolia.</p> Jamyansuren S Udval B Batkhuu N Bat-Erdene J Michael Fischer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 18 31 10.5564/pmas.v59i2.1216 Study of anatomical feature of in vitro and ex vitro regeneration plant of Sophora Alopecuroides l. <p>The success of shoot and rooting from the nodal shoot segments of <em>Sophora alopecuroides L.</em> were induced in vitro condition. However, transferring and acclimatizing the plantlets to under soil or ex vitro condition were difficult. This study investigated plant survival with anatomical changes in plantlets while transferring from in vitro to ex vitro conditions to investigate vascular cylinder variations. <br>The ex vitro rooting of the in vitro regenerated shoots, after having been treated with 500 mg/L IBA, showed a success rate of 80 per cent. These plantlets were rooted and acclimatized simultaneously in ex vitro condition.</p> Tsolmon M Bayarmaa B Oyunbileg Yu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 32 40 10.5564/pmas.v59i2.1217 Additions to the vascular flora of Mongolia - IV <p>The article presents updates on the new species recorded in the “Conspectus of the Vascular Plants of Mongolia” (Urgamal et al. 2014), and three articles published “Additions to the Vascular Flora of Mongolia – I, II, III (2013, 2014, 2016)” listed as new for the Mongolian floristic novelties and reported as well. The aim of this article is to officially report new records for vascular plants from Mongolia, and this includes the data in total, 28 species (with 2 infraspecies) from 19 genera and 12 families. In addition, Cerastium alpinum, Dianthus repens, Draba alpina, Eritrichium tianschanicum, Gastrolychnis violascens, Iris oxypetala, Papaver chakassicum, Papaver lapponicum, Potentilla turczaninowiana, Stellaria depressa (10 species) were newly recorded in the list of vascular flora of Mongolia. The newly added species come under the following families and genera: Caryophyllaceae (5 species), Ranunculaceae (4 species), and Rosaceae (4 species) families and Potentilla (4 species), Geranium (3 species), and Iris (3 species) genera. The most recent additions to the following phyto-geographical regions of Mongolia are: Mongolian Altai (9 species), Khovd (7 species), and Khangai (6 species) regions.<br> At present, 3191 taxa (including 134 subspecies and 34 varieties) of vascular plants, representing over 684 genera from 108 families, 39 orders, 12 classes, includes 5 divisions, and 3 superclades (Ferns, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae) are registered in Mongolia. Since the last conspectus (Urgamal et al. 2014) was published, 1genera, 64 species and subspecies have been newly added to the flora of Mongolia. The newly recorded 5 species are “endemic“and 9 species are “sub-endemic” to Mongolia. Therefore, currently a total of 125 species (3.91%) are “endemic”, and 532 species (16.65%) are “sub-endemic” to the vascular flora of Mongolia, respectively.</p> Urgamal M Gundegmaa V Baasanmunkh Sh Oyuntsetseg B Darikhand D Munkh-Erdene T ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 41 53 10.5564/pmas.v59i2.1218 Climate biocapacity of Mongolia and its change <p>This paper has looked into the estimated results of climate biocapacity in Mongolia. The soil moisture supply was assessed through annual precipitation, Shashko’s humidity coefficient, Selyainov’s heat-moisture coefficient and Ivanov-Mezentsev climate biological productivity index. Finally, their long-term trends have been considered as well. The results are consistent with vegetation zones, summer mean pasture yield and existing arable farming region in the country. Therefore, the results are applicable in Mongolia’s conditions. Also, the heat supply during growing season is estimated by daily average temperature, which fluctuates from 5 and 10<sup>o</sup>C in spring and autumn respectively, the sum total of effective and active temperature. Since 1960, the growing season in the country has lengthened by 3 weeks and the sum of active temperature above 10<sup>o</sup>C has increased by 80-90<sup>o</sup>C, although the moisture supply of vegetation is weakening and moreover, climate biocapacity is decreasing.</p> Natsagdorj L Munkhbat B Gomboluudev P ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 54 70 10.5564/pmas.v59i2.1219 A pilot geomagnetic and magnetotelluric survey in Mogod area of the Eastern Hangai, Mongolia <p>The paper are the preliminary results of the study of the hydrothermal system of Khulj, which is located in Mogod soum of Bulgan aimag, carried out using magnetotelluric and magnetic methods. Khulj’s hydrothermal system is an interesting geodynamic structure located in the area of a young volcanic mountain in the eastern part of the Khangai Mountains. The study was carried out using two geophysical methods. <br>The first is the magnetotelluric measurement, which registered variations of 3 components of magnetic field (Bx, By, Bz), and 2 components of electric field (Ex, Ey). In addition, we have provided a total of 8 magnetic field profiles for an area of ​​4 x 8 km. The sample rate of the total magnetic field was 3 seconds, which corresponds to about 3 meters. The programme’s codes are written in C ++ and Matlab and the result of this code is a programme called INV2DMAG. This programme is based on the inversion method of the Levenberq-Marquardt algorithm. Magnetotelluric results show that one-dimensional models clearly display the depth, the thickness of precipitation, as well as the thickness of the Moho boundaries. A preliminary two-dimensional magnetic structure, determined from small-length profiles, provides very useful insight into understanding the shallow deep structure of the sedimentary soil of the region in and around Mogod. In the Mogod’s hydrothermal system, we expect that the hot fluid heats up from granites, which have a deep source.<br>For a detailed research, repeat field measurement is required to determine not only the structure of this geothermal system but also to determine the depth of the sedimentary soil.</p> Batmagnai E Tsegmed B Nasan-Ochir T Gantsogt S Eldew-Ochir B ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 71 81 10.5564/pmas.v59i2.1220