Petro-chemical characterization and depositional setting of a late Permian high ash coal deposit, Central Mongolia




Mongol-Transbaikalian Seaway, coal measures, coal quality, facies analysis, plant-arthropod interactions


Pan global Permian coal measures are unique in the evolution of the Earth, not matched in any period before or since. Middle and late Permian coal-bearing strata are widely distributed in Mongolia. In particular, a large concentration of transtensive coal-bearing sub-basins is located in southern Mongolia, some of which are well documented. However, the late Permian coal measures developed along the shores of the Mongol-Transbaikalian Seaway in central Mongolia, the focus of this contribution, has received very limited attention. This study focuses on the c. 420 m thick coal-bearing middle part of a c. 2,600 m thick Permo-Triassic succession in the Bayanjargalan district. The study draws on data from 38 drillholes, 3 km of trenches, mapping, petrological analysis of sandstone samples, analysis of macroflora, fauna and trace fossils, 82 coal quality samples as well as washability and ash XRD analysis from a 3t coal bulk sample. The unstable and wedge-shaped architecture of the coal seams strongly suggest a syn-tectonic influence on their development. Paleoclimatic indicators suggest the peat mire ecosystem developed during relatively cold - temperate climatic conditions. Peat-forming plants such as Cordaites, Rufloria and Koretrophyllites probably benefited from moist air currents along the seaway. Plant-arthropod interactions are reported from two sites, in particular DT228 and DT246 oviposition lesions, the latter being almost twice the size of a previous report from North America. Results from 82 proximate analyses returned consistent very high ash yields of 46.95% (db) and 43.45% (adb) from the 3t bulk sample, which are unusual for Permian coals in Mongolia.


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How to Cite

Michaelsen, P., & Demberelsuren, B. (2024). Petro-chemical characterization and depositional setting of a late Permian high ash coal deposit, Central Mongolia. Mongolian Geoscientist, 29(58), 55–79.