Velocity analysis of a lateral wave
Keywords:FDTD simulation, electromagnetic wave, CMP
In practice, the reflected EM signal cannot be clearly observed in GPR data due to the high water content and other reasons. However, the antenna coupling signal through the ground interface is dominated in all the GPR measurements. This direct coupling signal that travels through the ground interface is called a lateral wave. The properties of the lateral wave directly depend on the subsurface properties, especially electrical parameters. We have numerically analyzed a lateral wave and its velocity. Subsequently, the relationship between lateral wave and dielectric permittivity was determined by polynomial regression. Analytically, it is challenging to analyze a lateral wave due to the parameters that can influence wave propagation. Antenna characteristics, surface roughness, etc need to be considered. Numerically, we designed a GPR system with a subsurface layer and observed a lateral wave. This numerical analysis can give a chance to use a lateral wave for near-surface soil water content. This analysis gives a more precise estimation of surface water content. Moreover, we analyze the antenna height effect that influences radar signals. We numerically observed that the GPR signal is highly affected by antenna height. The antenna height effect depended on the wavelength of the applied electromagnetic wave. By adjusting the antenna height, the unobservable GPR signal can be clearly detected.
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